Heart Disease
Heart Defects
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in Children
The atrial septum is the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital).
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. A VSD is an opening or hole in the dividing wall (septum) between the 2 lower chambers of the heart (right and left ventricles). VSDs are the most common type of congenital heart defect.
Atrioventricular (AV) Canal in Children
An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.
Tricuspid Atresia
Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The tricuspid valve is located between the right upper chamber (atrium) and the right lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart. The defect keeps blood from flowing normally from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
Pulmonary Atresia
Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a heart defect. It happens when the fetal heart doesn’t form as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a type of congental heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. In this condition, the large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and body aren’t connected as they should be.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Tetralogy of Fallot is 4 congenital heart defects. This means that your child is born with them. These 4 problems occur together (tetralogy refers to 4).
Coarctation of the Aorta (COA) in Children
Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It means the aorta is narrower than it should be.
Aortic Stenosis in Children
Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.
Pulmonary Stenosis in Children
Pulmonary stenosis is a birth defect of the heart (congenital). It can happen when the pulmonary valve doesn’t develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The pulmonary valve connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect found in the days or weeks after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a normal part of fetal blood circulation. All babies are born with this opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. But it usually closes on its own shortly after birth. If it stays open, it is called patent ductus arteriosus.